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Bad breath 2


Bad breath is an odour emanating from the mouth and surrounding organs that can be unpleasant to others and to the person themselves. In most cases, bad breath is caused by local factors in the mouth, but it can also be caused by problems in one of the airways through which air passes from the lungs to the mouth. The main cause of bad breath is volatile sulphur compounds, which are produced by bacteria in the mouth as they break down amino acids and proteins found in food particles, saliva, blood, etc. The most common volatile compounds are methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which have an odour similar to that of rotten eggs or rotting onions. These compounds are responsible for about 90% of all cases of bad breath.


There are two types of bad breath: physiological and pathological. Physiological halitosis occurs in about 50% of middle-aged and elderly people. Just as body odour changes to bad odour as a result of reduced sebum production with age, various periodontal diseases increase as the amount of saliva in the mouth decreases, making bad breath even more unpleasant. Even healthy people have bad breath when they wake up in the morning, which is caused by the decomposition of food particles, oral cells and saliva left in various parts of the mouth during sleep. Bad breath can also occur after prolonged physical exertion, on a strict diet, when eating irregularly, or during menstruation in women. Some blood pressure medications, antidepressants and smoking can cause bad breath. Pathological bad breath is caused by problems in the mouth or other organs. About 80-90% of cases of bad breath are related to oral problems. These problems include various diseases caused by poor oral hygiene and the condition of the mouth itself: plaque on the tongue, periodontal disease, oral cancer and tooth decay. Oral diseases can be caused by chronic sinusitis, deviated nasal septum and digestive disorders.


Firstly, it is possible to self-diagnose bad breath.

If a patient suffers from bad breath, the doctor will take a detailed medical history, including information about the onset of bad breath, its nature, the presence of dryness or burning in the mouth, and so on. The condition of the oral mucosa is then assessed for inflammatory processes and severe damage to the teeth, which may be the cause of bad breath. The doctor may use endoscopic methods to check the condition of the tonsils and determine the presence or absence of post-nasal syndrome. Other methods include checking the condition of the tongue and sensory tests.

Treatment and course of the disease

The main objective is to eliminate bad breath and relieve the patient of the discomfort it causes. Address the causes of volatile hydrogen sulphide in the oral cavity and educate the patient about proper dietary habits. Also provide information and teach self-testing techniques to detect the presence of bad breath, which will help reduce the social discomfort associated with it. If the bad breath is caused by a systemic disease, it is expected that the problem will disappear completely once the disease is treated. If using a tongue rinse on a daily basis does not produce the desired result, an ultrasound procedure can be used to remove tartar and plaque from the tongue.

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