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Chronic rhinitis 


Rhinitis is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa caused by various factors. Symptoms of rhinitis include nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching and postnasal syndrome. Chronic rhinitis can be conditionally divided into allergic and non-allergic. 

This condition is generally classified as allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Depending on the duration, it is divided into acute and chronic rhinitis. Depending on the causes, chronic rhinitis is divided into infectious and non-infectious. Chronic rhinitis includes chronic infectious rhinitis caused by bacterial infection, hypertrophic rhinitis, cold-related rhinitis or cold rhinitis, and allergic rhinitis.


Regardless of the cause, chronic rhinitis has similar clinical manifestations with only differences in the severity of symptoms. One of the most common symptoms is chronic runny nose accompanied by nasal congestion, sneezing and itching. When nasal congestion becomes so severe that both nostrils become blocked, the person is forced to breathe through the mouth, which can cause discomfort and sore throat. Postnasal syndrome is a condition in which mucus from the nasal cavity flows down the back of the pharynx, entering the trachea and bronchi, causing discomfort. As the inflammation in this area continues, sensitive nerve endings become irritated and the nerves of the nasal mucosa may become exposed, causing sneezing fits and loss or reduction of the sense of smell. 


Chronic rhinitis can be diagnosed through a physical examination by an otorhinolaryngologist and an anterior rhinoscopy. The physical examination mainly focuses on symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose and nasal congestion. It also includes an assessment of the temporal characteristics of the onset and recurrence of symptoms, including their dependence on the season or time of day. Using an anterior rhinoscope and an otorhinolaryngological frontal reflector, the doctor assesses the structure of the lower nasal shells and the nasal septum and determines the presence or absence of discharge. Endoscopic examination may be used to examine the structure within the nose and the condition of the nasal mucosa in more detail. Additional diagnostic methods include radiological and skin tests and specialized immunoglobulin tests. 

Treatment and course of the disease

In infectious rhinitis, full recovery can be achieved with appropriate medication administered for a sufficient period of time, and if complications occur, with surgical intervention. However, in children, medication is preferable to surgery. In both allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, symptom relief can be achieved using steroidal medications such as nasal sprays, oral medications, and by rinsing the nose with saline solution. In the case of allergic rhinitis, allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) may be helpful. If symptoms do not improve with medication, surgical treatment such as turbinoplasty (nasal concha repair) or septal surgery may be combined with medication therapy. General preventive measures include good hygiene, such as hand washing, and avoiding exposure to factors that contribute to rhinitis, such as physical overexertion, dust exposure, stress, etc. 


Complications of chronic rhinitis may include chronic sinusitis, dacryocystitis, conjunctivitis, tubootitis, otitis media, othelcosis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, etc. 

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