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Health Information

Infertility

Summary/Definition

Infertility means that there is a problem that prevents the normal course of the conception process, and that this problem persists for a long period of time for any reason. Relative infertility differs from absolute infertility, when the patient does not get pregnant for a year, despite normal marital relations. Infertility is divided into primary / secondary infertility, primary infertility is when pregnancy has never occurred before, and secondary infertility is a condition in which there was conception in the past, but after that pregnancy did not occur. The causes of infertility can be identified in both men and women. A combination of environmental factors, genetic factors and disease factors causes infertility. The most common cause of infertility in women is ovulation disorders, but there are other causes, for example, obstruction of the fallopian tubes and abdominal adhesions. Other causes of infertility include inflammation, lack of cervical mucus and endometriosis. The cause of male infertility is the inferiority of spermatozoa, impaired motility of spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and abnormalities in the development of genital organs. If the problem occurs at any stage of the fertilized egg implantation process, pregnancy will not occur, and if this problem persists for any reason for a long period of time, infertility occurs.

Symptoms

There are no special symptoms other than the appearance of a child.

Diagnostics

Female infertility test

  • Basal Body Temperature Chart: This is a test used to check ovulation, in which body temperature is measured and recorded every morning as soon as a person wakes up.
  • Hormone Test: This test is used to check the function of the ovaries. Blood is taken on the third day of menstruation to measure hormone levels.
  • Ultrasound: This is a study used to check the condition of the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. Ultrasound is performed by inserting an ultrasound device into the vagina.
  • Hysterosalpingography: a study used to check the condition of the fallopian tubes, in which a contrast agent is injected into the uterus to obtain radiographs.
  • Hysteroscope: used to diagnose abnormalities by direct observation of the inside of the cervix. A small hole is made in the vagina and cervix and a camera is inserted into the uterus.
  • Laparoscopy: A test used to check the condition of the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes by making a small hole in the abdominal cavity and inserting an endoscope. If surgery is necessary, it can be performed using a laparoscope.
  • Ovarian reserve test: this is a test used to check ovarian function. Blood is collected to measure the level of follicle-stimulating hormone, anti-muller hormone and (confirmation required) the number of sinusoidal follicles.

Male infertility test

  • Spermogram analysis: this is the simplest infertility test. After sexual abstinence from 2 to 7 days, the sperm is collected in a sterilized container, and then 1 hour after collection, the color, viscosity, sperm count, motility, and morphology of the sperm are determined.

Treatment and course of the disease

For proper treatment of infertility, it is important to determine the exact cause and conduct appropriate treatment. Treatment options include artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and the latest technologies such as preimplantation genetic testing, in vitro fertilization of immature eggs and cryopreservation.

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