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Health Information



Osteopenia is a condition of bone tissue characterized by a decrease in density and damage to the microstructures that maintain bone shape. Prolonged development of this pathology can lead to the development of osteoporosis. The level of bone mineral density (T index) in a patient with osteopenia is between -2.5 and -1.0. Risk factors for osteopenia include insufficient bone volume during adolescence, loss of bone mass with age and menopause, genetic predisposition, being underweight, and unhealthy habits such as excessive alcohol consumption and smoking. If left untreated, osteopenia can progress to osteoporosis, so it is important to start appropriate treatment early. 


Symptoms of osteopenia may go unnoticed for a long time until a fracture or secondary structural changes occur. However, as bone mineralization decreases, pain begins to manifest itself and a small impact can cause fractures or even permanent disability. 


Osteopenia is diagnosed by measuring bone density, which can be done using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), ultrasound, and other methods. Tests for thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormones, sex hormones and corticosteroids may be carried out. Osteopenia is diagnosed when the T-index value is between -2.5 and -1.0. This is the standard deviation above and below the mean bone density of young adults of the same race and sex (normal: T ≥ -1.0; osteoporosis: T ≥ -2.5). 

Treatment and course of the disease

In osteopenia, identifying risk factors and preventing them is of paramount importance. It is not a disease that occurs in post-menopausal women or in the elderly as a result of ageing, but a disease that can be prevented with proper prevention and treatment. To prevent osteopenia, it is important to maintain maximum bone mass between the ages of 20 and 30, which can be achieved through proper diet and regular exercise. Consuming calcium-rich foods, increasing vitamin D intake and taking regular exercise can all help. 

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